Institutions Established

The Banaras Hindu University
Acharya Sitaram Chaturvedi Eminent Writer & Prof. BHU

THE BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY is, quite literally, the creation of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Even when he was at school, he had begun to dream of a day when young men and women of India would not be obliged to go to foreign countries for higher education. It always pained him to observe that while students belonging to other sects knew much about their religion, the Hindu students knew very little about their rich cultural legacy. Later, when he was a student of the Muir Central College, Allahabad, he was grieved to learn that number of Indian youths, who went to England for higher studies, returned home with distorted attitudes towards their own country and culture. The solution, according to Malaviaji, lay in creating a university in which a correct approach towards Indian cultural values and the Indian way of life-behaviour could be taught to the Indian youth. When he ventilated his feelings to his classmates, they made fun of him and retorted, “Have you gone mad? Where will you find means to set up such a big university?” Malaviyaji, however, did not lose heart. When the Allahabad University came into existence in 1887, he changed his original idea of a University at Allahabad and decided to have the University of his dream at Banaras.

With the establishment of the Universities at Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lahore and Allahabad, a new class of young men sprang up in India, which was ambitious to secure administrative jobs under the British Government. Simultaneously, a group of young rebels also began to grow up at these universities. These young men were appalled by the partisan nature of British education and the slavish mentality of their compatriots who sought to derive material advantages under the British rule. Those who belonged to this group of nationalists and patriots became an eyesore to the British administrators who resorted to all possible means to suppress their activities and disrupt their efforts. But the result was just the reverse. The more the Britishers tried their suppressive measures the more violent and indomitable grew the determination of these young men.

Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy, was greatly alarmed at this state of affairs and appointed an Indian Universities Commission in 1904 to probe into working of the universities in India. On the basis of this report, all the universities were brought directly under Government control. A Calcutta University Commission was appointed in 1917 and on the basis of its recommendations, a teaching university was established at Dacca (now in Bangladesh) while the other universities remained only examining bodies.

In the light of these developments, it became all the more essential to establish a national university where oriental and occidental arts, humanities and sciences could be taught without losing contract with Indian culture and thought. A surge for establishing educational institutions was discernible throughout the country for imparting national education. Raja Munshi Madholal of Banaras had donated a handsome amount of rupees three lakh for the establishment of a National College at Banaras. Lokamanya Tilak with the help of some friends, had founded a Samarth Vidyalaya in Poona. A large number of great scholars had come forward to dedicate their lives to this sacred cause and offered their honorary services to such national institutions. The Maharaja of Nabha called on Sikh community to improve the condition of the Khalsa College of Amritsar. A handsome donation was similarly promised for a new college at Ranchi. Sir Syed Ahmed, the founder of the Aligarh Muslim College, was steadily planning to raise the college of the status of a full-fledged residential university. The Bareilly College was speedily developing under the munificent patronage of the Nawab of Rampur. The Maharaja of Balrampur set apart a notable amount of rupees three lakh for the establishment of a new institution on the pattern of ancient Gurukuls. The Tata Research Institute, furnished with equipments for carrying up-to-date research, had also seen the light of the day. All these private enterprises came into being simultaneously because of the general belief that the educational institutions set up by the Government could not cope up with the growing demand for higher education, specially for education having Indian bias.

It was in consonance with the above efforts throughout India that in the year 1904, Malaviyaji formally moved the resolution for establishing a Hindu University at a meeting held in Kashi under the presidentship of the Maharaja of Banaras. When the ambitious scheme of the Banaras Hindu University was placed before the assembly most of the elite present there expressed grave doubts about its feasibility. The Maharaja of Banaras in one of his speeches at the Central Hindu College of a later date, admitted, “When my honourable friend Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, who deserves the credit of making the initial proposal, first gave me his mind for the purpose, I harboured very great doubts in its realization.” In spite of these doubts, however, the resolution was unanimously carried. This success encouraged Malaviyaji so immensely that he immediately gave up his law practice in November 1905 in order to devote full attention to the new project. For one full month, he practiced penance at the Hanuman temple at Triveni by chanting the Gayatri Mantra for achieving success in establishing the cherished University. He then approached his venerable father for his blessings. In addition to his sincere blessings, his father gave him a token donation of fifty-one rupees for the University. The same year, the Indian National Congress had decided to hold its session at Banaras under the presidentship of Shree Gopal Krishna Gokhale. In October of the same year, Malaviyaji got thousands of copies of the scheme of the proposed university printed and dispatched to leading princes, philanthropists, learned men and other eminent countrymen.

During the session of the Indian National Congress at Banaras a public meeting was convened on 31 December 1905, at the Town Hall under the presidentship of Shri B.N.Mahajani of Berar. The scheme of the Hindu university was placed before the representatives of all the religions and renowned educationists. It received unanimous approval, and the resolution for the establishment of the Hindu University was publicly announced on 1 January 1906, in the Pandal of the Congress. It was clamorously hailed by all those assembled there. The resolution was reiterated at an assembly of Hindu religious leaders and scholars held at Prayag the same year on the occasion of the great Kumbh Fair under presidentship of Jagadguru Swami Shankaracharyaji. The resolution read as follows:

I. A Hindu University be established at Kashi as an Indian University with the undermentioned objects:

(a)To prepare religious teachers for the propagation of Sanatan Dharma as enjoined upon by the Vedas and the Smritis (laws of personal and social conduct).

(b)To encourage the study of Sanskrit language and literature.

(c)To assist in the propagation of education in scientific and technological learning through Indian languages and Sanskrit.

II.The Hindu University shall have the following institutions:

(a)Vedic Vidyalaya, where instructions shall be imparted in Vedas, Vedangas, smritis, Itihas (History) and Puranas (Old Indian annals). An observatory shall also be established for the study of the movement of the stars, planets and satellites in the department of astronomy.

(b)Ayurvedic Vidyalaya; which will have a laboratory and an arboretum or botanical garden of medicinal herbs for the study of Medicinal Botany.

(c)School of Architectural Engineering and Economics, which will have three departments: (i) Physics department, (ii) a laboratory for experiments and research, and (iii) a workshop for imparting training in mechanical and electrical engineering.

(d)Engineering Department, where articles of daily use shall be manufactured. This department shall also impart training in geology, mining and metallurgy.

(e)College of Agriculture, where theoretical and practical knowledge in the science of agriculture shall be imparted in accordance with the latest experiments and researches.

(f)A College of Music and other Fine Arts.

(g)A College of Languages, where English, German and other foreign languages shall be taught so that the treasure of the literature of Indian Languages be enriched by new treasures discovered through these and be further developed by the new researches in the fields of sciences and arts.

III.(a) The working of the religious institutions of the University and the Vedic Vidyalaya shall lie in the hands of those Hindus alone, who are ardent followers of the Sanatan Dharma as enjoined upon by Shrutis (the Vedic Literature), Smritis (Codes of personal and Social conduct), and the Puranas (old Indian annals).

(b) Only such students shall be admitted to this college as are admissible according to the injunctions of the Varnashram Dharma.

IV.(a) A Committee, with Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya as its Secretary, is constituted to adopt all possible means to realize the scheme with powers to co opt other members also.

(b) Members elected on this Committee by the Town Hall Meeting at Kashi may be requested to accept membership of this Committee also.

V. (a) All the money collected for or on behalf of the University shall be deposited with Raja Munshi Madho Lal of Banaras who will deposit it with the Bank of Bengal, Banaras, till further advice by the Committee.

(b) No money shall be spent out of these collections till the University Society is registered as an organized body and its rules and regulations formulated. All expenditure in this respect shall be met out of the funds of the Sanatan Dharma Mahasabha till then.

The resolution was carried unanimously. It was also agreed that the foundations of the new university would be laid as soon as a sum of rupees thirty lakh was collected and provision made for an annual recurring expenditure of rupees one lakh.

The Hindu University was not established merely to grant degrees and diplomas to young men of India. Its main purpose was to enable the students to feel grateful to the creator of the Universe and to be true Hindus and patriots. Malaviyaji laid great emphasis on technical education and wished that by achieving knowledge of various arts and sciences, our young men should make out country self-dependent and self-sufficient. In one of his speeches relating to the establishment of the Hindus University, he referred to the progress made by America and Europe during the past seventy-five years particularly in producing articles for daily use with the help of technology, and said that “India has lagged much behind those countries where the study of science by experimentations is done for the good of the society and for the service of the country.” It is evident from this statement that his main aim in establishing this university was to cultivate nationalism in the true sense and spirit of the word.

Just then, an earthquake of great intensity rocked the Kangra valley in the Punjab bringing disaster and destruction to the people of that area. But more violent then the Kangra earthquake was the political upheaval brewed by the British Government through the partition of Bengal. This result was a great agitation on an unprecedented scale resulting in the exile and imprisonment of a large number of Indian political leaders. Among them were some of those great men who were actively associated with the establishment of the Hindu University. So the scheme was put in cold storage for the time being.

The Central Hindu College of Mrs. Annie Besant had gained world-wide repute as a great centre of learning. A number of eminent scholars of renown in India and abroad dedicated their lives to the cause to impart learning without any remuneration. Mrs. Annie Besant possessed great faith in Hindu religion and culture and owed to her credit the authorship of a number of books on Hindu religion. She wanted to raise her College to the status of a teaching University, with the right of affiliating colleges throughout the world. Consequently, she applied for a Royal Charter under the signature of influential personalities for the establishment of a ‘University of India’. The Bharat Dharma Mahamandal of Kashi, under the Presidentship of the Maharaja of Darbhanga, had simultaneously launched a scheme for the establishment of a Sanatan Dharma University. In the year 1911, the Maharaja of Darbhanga incorporated his scheme with that of the Hindu University proposed by Malaviyaji and both of these great men met Lord Hardinge, the then Governor-General of India, who readily gives his consent and assent and promised whole-hearted support on behalf of the Government. Correspondence was in the meantime going on between Malaviyaji and Mrs. Besant and in April 1911, at Prayag, the three schemes were merged into one. Many of the respectable and influential citizens of Prayag pressed Malaviyaji had to shift the venue of the University to Prayag but Malaviyaji did not budge an inch from his original resolve and argued that as Kashi was an ancient seat of learning, the Hindu University could not be established at any place other than Kashi.

There was divergence of opinion among the Trustees of the Hindu College on the question of recognizing J.Krishnamurti as World Teacher. In the meanwhile, it was reported that the establishment of a Muslim University at Aligarh had reached its final stage. Hence, it became all the more necessary to expedite the establishment of the Banaras Hindu University for which so much had already been done and public opinion had already been created. Malaviyaji again became active. He wanted to have Pandit Sundar Lal, the leading advocate of the Allahabad High Court as the Secretary of the Banaras Hindu University Society. Pandit Sundar Lal felt that he would not be able to give enough time to the Society. Moreover, he was not all confident of the success of the scheme. So the burden had to be borne by Malaviyaji all alone. He began his whirlwind tour of the country to collect donations. Calcutta was first on the itinerary. The millionaires of Calcutta generously responded to his call and the reception meted out to him there filled his heart with hope and confidence and his bowl with gold.

When the British Government learnt that education was to be imparted through the medium of Hindi in the proposed University, they became greatly alarmed. The Education Secretary to the Governor-General, Sir Harcourt Butler made it clear to Malaviyaji during personal talks that he should not expect any recognition from the Government if education was to be imported through the mother-tongue in the University, for, as long as work was carried on through English, it was intelligible to them but when recourse was taken to mother-tongue, evrthing became unintelligible, hence no permission would be accorded to any scheme of education in which provision was made for teaching through the mother-tongue. Malaviyaji who did not want to see his scheme-founder, for the reason, dropped the idea of imparting education through the mother-tongue. Bu that time, Sir Sundar Lal had also agreed to take over the Secretaryship of the University Society on the advice of Sir Harcourt Butler.

When Malaviyaji met the then Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, in connection with establishment of the Banaras Hindu University, the Viceroy told him, “It has been complained to me that you oppose the Government stealthily.” Malaviyaji at once replied, “This is not a fact. You may get writings and speeches scrutinized personally and if anyone finds any matter which may tend to propagate ill-will against the English people, I will at once beg pardon for the same.” Lord Hardinge was convinced of his sincerity and since then he always held Malaviyaji in great respect and confidence.

Mrs. Annie Besant also extended her support to the idea of the Hindu University. The establishment of the Hindu University was formally declared at a public meeting in Calcutta at which donations worth five lakh of rupees were promised for the proposed University.

A deputation, led by Malaviyaji, visited all important towns in northern India from Calcutta to Lahore. Everywhere it was accorded a rousing reception. In a short period of three months, promises were made for a sum of rupees twenty-five lakh. The party was invited to Simla where Malaviyaji met the then Viceroy, Lord Hardinge. When he returned from there, he informed his colleagues that the Viceroy had promised to give his assent to the establishment of the Banaras Hindu University. At once Babu Shiva Prasad Gupta said, “This is the death-knell of the University.” The deputationists returned back to Lahore from Simla and in a largely attended public meeting, Lala Lajpat Rai, the Loin of Punjab, declared: “Charter or no charter, Hindu University must exist.

Even Pandit Sundar Lal with whom he had planned the whole scheme of the Banaras Hindu University was not confident of the success of the scheme and he used to ask Malaviyaji in jest, “When will your toy University will surely come into existence?”and Malaviyaji used to give his usual confident reply, “Sundarlalji, the University will surely come into existence and you will be its first Vice Chancellor.” And so did it happen. He used to move about with the blueprints of the buildings of the Hindu University and would reason with people thus: “Is it difficult to collect five crores of rupees from Indian people? Are there no ten such rich men as can donate five lakhs each? Are there no twenty such men as can donate three lakhs each? Are there no hundred men who can give one lakh each?” and this is how he calculated to collect five crore rupees. And there was none whom he spared. No one could leave him without contributing to the coffers of the Banaras Hindu University.

Malaviyaji and Sir Sundar Lal were complimentary to each other. Malaviyaji’s business was to secure promises from moneyed people and that of Pandit Sundar Lal to realize the promised amount. Sir Sundar Lal himself donated a sum of rupees one lakh to Hindu University fund. The whole country was generous enough to raise one crore and thirty-four lakh of rupees. On 31 January 1912, Mrs. Annie Besant paid glowing tributes to the sincerity and perseverance of Malaviyaji to the cause of the Hindu University in the following words: “He has sacrificed his worldly life, his energies, his powerful art of speech, nay, his whole self and health to the cause of this great Banaras Hindu University.”

Shri J.B.Kripalani has given a vivid picture of how Malaviyaji convinced the people regarding the utility of Banaras Hindu University. He says, “He was the greatest beggar if India only after Gandhiji. I can never forget how he used to persuade people to donate for the Hindu University. Wherever he went he used to keep the blueprints of the University ready with him to spread before his fellow travellers and explain the purpose of that great proposed seat of learning where modern science was to be taught along with the Hindu religion and culture. He used to explain how he was going to establish a University at Kashi, holy place on the sacred bank of Ganga, in the city of Vishwanath, in the ancient seat of pilgrimage, where Maharaja Harish Chandra gave away his son and his wife, nay, his all; where great sages used to perform penances since time immemorial; where every Hindu yearns to spend his last days; where innumerable Hindus have offered their ashes to the mother Ganga; which was a great seat of learning since time immemorial and where the students received free education with provision of free lodging and boarding and where now Physics, Modern Arts and Sciences shall be taught along with the ancient learning; that nothing was more sacred than donating for the purpose of spreading learning and that it was a unique occasion for the philanthropists to contribute magnanimously and obtain the blessing of Lord Shiva and immense spiritual virtues. He used to say all this in a very simple language and I have marked many a fellow travellor pledging his support for the University. In frivolity I used to call this pilfering for the noble cause.

The way in which Malaviyaji collected money for the Banaras Hindu University was interesting. Every day he used to fix a target for the day’s collection with a vow not to take his day’s meal till the target was reached. One day while he was in Amritsar, he went to call on local business man. It was post noon time. Everyone in the company was feeling hungry and exhausted. The business man at once arranged for sumptuous refreshment for the party, but Malaviyaji refused to have anything. When the host enquired the reason, it was explained to him that iit was Malaviyaji’s vow not to take anything till his target was reached. When the trader was informed of the target amount of the day, he at once took out his cheque book and gave over a cheque for the balance even through the amount was much more than he was wxpected to donate.

Similarly, once he approached a certain Nawab who did not want pay a farthing for the Banaras Hindu University and was a very hard nut to crack. But Malaviyaji was equally unyielding. So he stretched out his scarf before the nawab and said, “Whatever you like you may put in this and I will go away.” The Nawab was so cross that he at once picked up one of his shoes and cast it into the scarf. Malaviyaji at once accepted the gift with great regard and announced on the paper that the particular Nawab had donated a shoe and that it would be put to auction on a certain day. When the Nawab heard this, he felt greatly abashed, donated a handsome amount and got his shoe back.

Once a millionaire faced a heavy financial loss. He approached Malaviyaji to seek his blessings and advice. Malaviyaji smiled and said, “You donate five lakh of rupees to the Banaras Hindu University.” The millionaire looked at him amazed because he had most everything in business and was facing liquidation. But Malaviyaji consoled him and said, “You came to take my advice. Why not follow it?” The millionaire at once handed over a cheque for five lakh to Malaviyaji. The next day when the news was published about his donation, his credit recovered to such an extent that his Bank was saved from liquidation.

In 1911, the Hindu University Society was formally registered. The Secretary of State for India gave his assent under advice from Lord Hardinge to establish a Residential University at Kashi. Mrs. Annie Besant and the Trustee of the Central Hindu College, Banaras were gracious enough to hand over the Central College to the Banaras Hindu University to form the nucleus of the University.

The foundation-stone of the Banaras Hindu University was laid by Lord Hardinge, the then Viceroy, on the Vasant Panchami day, 4 February 1916, before an august and colourful assembly of the Indian Princes, Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Bengal, Bihar, Orrisa, U.P. and Punjab and a large number of public men of eminence of India and abroad. Here is an extract from the speech of Lord Hardinge which clearly indicates why this University came into existence and why it was called the Hindu University:

It has seldom fallen to my lot to address a more distinguished gathering than that which I see before me today, including, as it does, the Governor of Bengal, a constellation of lieutenant Governors (of the United Provinces, the Punjab, Bihar and Orissa), a veritable galaxy of Indian Princes (Their Highnesses of Kashmir, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishengarh, Alwar, Nabha, Datia, Jhalawar and Banaras) and so much of the flower of India’s intellect. What is it that has brought together this brilliant assemblage from so many distant parts of Hindustan? What is the loadstone that is exercising so powerful and influence? It is in there in front of us, a fine block of marble, but little different in outward appearance from many others that I have helped to set in their places during the past five years. But in spite of its apparent simplicity, it possesses a deep significance, for it betokens a new departure in the history of education in Indian and one that has attracted the most intense interest on the part of all goods and thoughtful Hindus. This foundation stone will mark a definite step in the advance towards an ideal that has stirred to its very depths the imagination of India.

But this University is going to do something more than merely increase the existing facilities for a teaching and residential as contrasted with an affiliating and examining University. Perhaps I was wrong to say that these principles are new to India, for though in ancient times, there was nothing quite like a modern University, its prototype may be dimly discerned in the far distant past. The tradition that comes down to us is one of the thousands of students gathered round such great teachers as Vashistha and Gautama. Indeed the whole Indian idea of education is wrapped up in the conception of a group of pupils surroundings their Guru in loving reverence and not only imbibing the words of wisdom that fall from his lips but also looking up to him for guidance in religion and moulding their character in accordance with their precept and example.”

On the occasion of the foundation laying ceremony of the Banaras Hindu University, a meeting was convened in the Kashi Naresh Hall of the Central Hindu College at Kamachha, Banaras in which all the prominent celebrities of India including the Rajas and Maharajas were invited along with Gandhiji. When Gandhiji was requested to speak, he began in English and said: “Formerly, the relation between ruler and ruled was that the subjects used to have darshan of the ruler but the order has reversed in the British regime. When Lord Hardinge went by road nobody was allowed to see him…. All the Rajas and the Maharajas who are assembled are requested to distribute all their jewels and pearls stubbed in their crowns among their poor subjects because it is the property of those poor people… Lord Hardinge and the Government Officers so much fear the bomb-throwers that there is much precautionary vigilance on the roads. But you have to take people into confidence. I request those young men who throw bombs not to do stealthily. Whatever they have to say or do they must do it openly.” There was great stir in the meeting at the speech of Gandhiji. Mrs. Annie Besant stood up and objected to the speech. The Rajas and the Maharajas slipped away one by one but Malaviyaji sat in a philosophical mood in his own place. The Maharajadhiraj of Darbhanga who was the Chairman of the meeting did not stop Gandhiji from speaking in spite of protests from Mrs. Annie Besant and from others. Gandhiji said, “Until the President stops me I will go on speaking.” Young men from the audience cried out, “go on, go on.” Many people stood up and began to leave the meeting. Then, Malaviyaji stood up with folded hands. Upon this Gandhiji ceased speaking and the meeting came to an abrupt end.

The Hindu University was thus legally established and the first batch of examinees of the Banaras Hindu University appeared in 1918.

Then followed great events which gave a violent shock to the political and social life of India. The Jallianwala massacre took place in 1919; Lokmanya Tilak died in 1920, and Mahatma Gandhi launched his favour non-cooperation movement the same year. The British Government took recourse to suppression. A large number of patriots were put behind the bars. During those turbulent days, the visit of the Prince of Wales to India was suddenly announced. The authorities of the Banaras Hindu University resolved to honour him by conferring on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters. This move was strongly resented by the people of India but Malaviyaji still invited the Prince of Wales to Banaras in the teeth of opposition and conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Letters Honoris Causa on 13 December 1921. The University was shifted from its original site at Kamachha to the new spacious grounds at Nagawa, just opposite to Ramnagar Fort on the left bank of the Ganga.

The word Hindu in the name of Banaras Hindu University does not carry any communal and sectarian connotation. Malaviyaji was very clear on this point. In a speech delivered at the time when the Banaras Hindu University Bill was introduced in the Legislative Assembly, Malaviyaji took great pains to clarify this point and to explain the true purport of the Banaras Hindu University.

He said:

It (the University) will not promote narrow sectarianism but a broad liberation of mind and a religious spirit which will promote brotherly feeling between man and man. Unfortunately we are all aware that the absence of sectarian religious Universities, the absence of any compulsory religious education in our State Universities, has not prevented the growth of sectarian feeling in the country. I believe that the instruction in the truth of religion, whether it be Hindu or Musalman, whether it be imparted to the students of the Banaras Hindu University or to the Aligarh Muslim University, will tend to produce men, who, if they are true to their religion, will be true to their God, their kind and their country. And, I look forward to the time when the students who will pass out of such Universities, will meet each other in a closer embrace as the sons of the same Motherland than they do at present.rdquo;

Speaking again on the occasion of the final passing of the Bill, Malaviyaji made the following observations:

I believe in the living power of religion. The want of (religious) education in our schools and colleges has long been felt. I believe, that the absence of any provision for religious education in the otherwise excellent system which the Government has introduced and has worked for the last sixty years in the country, has been responsible for many unfortunate results. I do not wish to dwell upon them. I am thankful to think that this acknowledged deficiency is going to be removed at the proposed important centre of education, which is happily going to be established at a place which may well be described as the most important centre of the religion and learning of the Hindus. I venture to hope, that the good influence of the Banaras Hindu University in the matter of religious instruction will be felt in other institutions far and near, and that in the course of a few years, religious instruction will become an integral part of the education imparted in schools and colleges supported by the Government and the people.

I conclude with the earnest hope and prayer, that this centre of life and light which is coming into existence, will produce students who will not only be intellectually equal to the best of their fellow students in other parts of the world, but will also be trained to live a noble life, to love their country and to be loyal to the Crown.rdquo;

Once a delegation of educationists from England came to visit the Banaras Hindu University. Malaviyaji asked Professor Seshadri who was available at hand to take them round and show them the Engineering College as he himself was going to attend a meeting. It was growing dusk and Professor Seshadri expressed his doubt whether any College would be on by that time. But Malaviyaji encouraged him, Doesnrsquo;t matter, some peons must be there.rdquo; But Professor Seshadri harboured apprehensions that there was little possibility of any peons being there at the late hour. But Malaviyaji insisted, Doesnrsquo;t matter. They will peep through the doors.rdquo; On this, one of the visitors remarked with a sense of admiration, Now I can understand how this University has come into existence. It is this, lsquo;Doesnrsquo;t matterrsquo; spirit which has given birth to this great institution.rdquo; And then Malaviyaji took the visitors around and attended his meeting very late.

The regime of Pandit Malaviya as Vice-Chancellor was marked with odds and difficulties but he tied over all of them courageously. Often the University had to face financial crises but he always came to its rescue at the nick of the moment and never lost heart. He was so optimistic that in very crucial moments, he kept up cheerful spirit and solved the problems with his magic wand.

The first trouble sprang up in 1920 when the students boycotted the Banaras Hindu University and joined the Satyagraha movement. Mrs. Annie Besant was the only Indian leader who stood by his side. The University was threatened every moment with closure but it goes entirely to his credit that he withstood the tides boldly and bravely. Not only this, when the Prince of Wales visited India in 1921, he went to the extent of inviting him to the University and in the teeth of opposition from all quarters, he conferred upon him the Degree of D.Litt. Honoris Chausa.

In the early thirties of the century, the Banaras Hindu University had become the centre of the anarchists and revolutionaries. A number of students were arrested and sentenced to serve imprisonment to different terms. Their families were put to great hardships but Malaviyaji gave them all possible help.

When he was arrested at Bombay in 1931 while offering Satyagraha at the Hornby Road, a batch of 125 students and teachers started off from Banaras to follow their Kulpati. Though Malaviyaji was released very soon, the impact of his arrest on the national movement was so great that it accelerated the movement and brought the British Government to disrepute.

In 1942, when the Congress passed its historic lsquo;Quit Indiarsquo; resolution and all the leaders of the country were put behind the bars overnight, a number of students of the University, specially those belonging to the eastern districts of U.P. led the movement in right earnest and held their reins of the Government in their hands for days together. The British Government had to send a special force to suppress the movement. The Banaras Hindu University had actually become the thermopile of the movement. The British force entered the University compound, broke open the locks and doors of the University buildings and drove out the students from the hostel mercilessly. Malaviyaji was living in the compound. He challenged the British Government but he was too infirm to move about to resist the invasion. But soon the events took a turn. The Naval Revolt at Bombay, the activities of the Indian National Army under Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in Burma and the downfall of Hitler obliged the British Government led by the Labour leaders to hand over power to the Indians. But the result was not very happy. We had to pay a heavy price for our freedom. The country was divided into two parts resulting in the death of hundreds and thousands of people. The unfortunate events at Noakhali and the atrocities perpetrated on the Hindus there so moved him that he succumbed to that shock on 12 November 1946.

He resigned from the post of Vice-Chancellor in 1938 and was elected its Reactor. He was followed by a number of distinguished Vice-Chancellors like Dr. Radhakrishnan, Dr. Amarnath Jha, Pt. Govind Malaviya, Acharya Narendra Deo and Dr. C.P.Ramaswami Aiyar. As long as he was alive, the University kept its religious and national tone alive but soon after his death, the spirit died out and the University turned into an ordinary type of academic centre. When Dr. Triguna Sen, took up the Vice-Chancellorship, he tried to revive the old spirit but he was soon called to take up a more responsible post at the Centre.

The Banaras Hindu University is essentially a national and cultural University and this character of the University was maintained by Pandit Malaviya through out his life. Once someone questioned Malaviyaji why his students were not selected for I.C.S. He promptly retorted The University was not created to produce Government servants. Our aim is to produce servants of the nation.rdquo; And no doubt the University did produce great servants f the Nation who contributed immensely to the achievement of Independence for our Motherland. Patriotism was the crux of all his speeches and writings to his students and he always exhorted them to become great patriots.

The Banaras Hindu University is a strange type of teaching-cum-residential University which developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplined centre of learning with various colleges having a number of Department under Departmental-Heads. But now very recently the following colleges have lost their nomenclature and the posts of Principals have now turned into the post of Deans:

Central Hindu College, Bharati Mahavidyalaya, Science College, Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, College of Music and Fine Arts and the Teacherrsquo;s Training College, Colleges of Engineering, Technology and Mining and Metallurgy are combined into one Technological Institute under a Director.

The Womenrsquo;s College, the Medical College and the College of Agriculture maintain their status quo.

The whole responsibility of the University now rests on the Central Government and the U.G.C. finances it. The University is now growing larger and larger. The whole campus is now full of new stately buildings for teaching campus is now full of stately buildings for teaching and residential purposes. It is a pleasure to note the grand array of the new buildings in the old and new architectural designs. It is a matter of great solace to everyone that the dreams of Malaviyaji have seen the light of the day in their fullest glory.

महामना और नागरी प्रचारिणी सभा
सुधाकर पांडेय

किसी भी क्षेत्र में युगजीवन को नवीन चेतना की लहरों से आंदोलित करना सहज नहीं है I चेतना की लहरों को कर्म की अनुगामिनी बना लोकजीवन में शिवतत्व की प्रतिष्ठा करना तो सदा से ही भागीरथी की अवतारणा करने के समान माना गया है I ऐसा करने वाले तपःपूतों को श्रद्धावनत हो लोक युगयुगांतर तक स्मरण करता रहता है I उसे इससे सनातन प्रेरणा मिलती है I

नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा को महामना के उन्मेषशील व्यक्तित्व की छाया इसके जन्मकाल से ही प्राप्त है I सभा की स्थापना के प्रथम वर्ष से उन्होंने सभा की संरक्षकसदस्यता स्वीकार को और जीवनपर्यन्त उसमें संबद्ध रहे I

सामान्यतः लोकजीवन इस बात का साक्षी है कि संमानित लोग संस्थाओं ले सदस्य तो हो जाते हैं लेकिन उनकी प्रवर्तियों को पल्लवित करने की चिंता उनमें नहीं रहती किन्तु मालवीय जी के संबंध में ऐसा नहीं किया जा सकता I जिस दिन से वे संरक्षकसदस्य हुए उसी दिन से प्रयाग में वकालत करते हुए भी सभा की सेवा में संलग्न हो गए I नागरीप्रचारिणी के माध्यम से की गई उनकी हिन्दीसेवाओं को दो वर्गों में विभाजित किया जा सकता है I प्रथमतः हम उनकी उन सेवाओं का उल्लेख करेंगे जो हिन्दी भाषा और देवनागरी लिपि के प्रचार, प्रसार एंव उसके अधिकार की पुनःस्थापना से संबद्ध हैं तथा दूसरे वर्ग के अंतर्गत उन सेवाओं की चर्चा की जायगी जिनके बल पर सभा की कार्यक्षमता एंव संपदा में वृद्धि हुई I

जिस समय पर नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा की स्थापना हुई उस समय हिन्दी भाषा और देवनागरी लिपि को वह अधिकार भी प्राप्त नहीं था जो अन्य देशी भाषाओँ को था I परिवर्तित युग में लोक भाषा की व्याप्ति के प्रमुख साधन विद्यालय तथा न्यायालय थे I लार्ड मेकाले की योजना शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में प्रचलित थी I सर सैयद अहमद खां द्वारा हिन्दू उर्दू के रोपे गए संघर्ष का बीज वृक्ष हो चुका था I सन १८३७ ई० तक न्यायालयों की भाषा फारसी थी I सर्वसाधारण के लिए दुरूह समझकर देशी भाषा के प्रयोग की भी सुविधा सरकार ने १८३७ में दी I फलतः बंगाल में बँगला, उड़ीसा में उड़िया, गुजरात में गुजराती और महाराष्ट्र में मराठी का प्रयोग किया जाने लगा पर मध्यप्रदेश, बिहार और संयुक्तप्रांत में हिंदुस्तानी का ही प्रयोग चलता रहा I अंग्रेज अधिकारियों को यह समझा दिया गया था कि उर्दू ही हिंदुस्तानी है; अतः हिन्दी के इन प्रांतों की अदालतों में फारसी लिपि में उर्दू का ही प्रयोग चलता रहा I इस भ्रम का बोध बिहार और मध्यप्रदेश के शासन को तो ४४ वर्ष के उपरान्त हो गया पर संयुक्तप्रांत की सरकार ने इधर कतई ध्यान नहीं दिया I नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा की स्थपना ऐसे ही समय में हुई थी I यद्धपि सन १८७५ और १८८५ के विधान इस पक्ष में थे की समन आदि उर्दू और हिन्दी दोनों में भरे जायँ तो भी छल, बल और स्वार्थ के वात्याचक्र के बीच फारसी लिपि में उर्दू का ही प्रयोग ऐसे कार्यों में होता रहा I हिन्दी का कहीं ठिकाना भी नहीं था I सभा की स्थापना के उपरांत तत्कालीन गवर्नर काशी आए और सभा के प्रतिनिधिमंडल ने इस संबंध में उनसे मिलना चाहा परन्तु उस इसके लिये अवसर ही नहीं दिया गया I ठीक इसी समय हिन्दी के विरुद्ध एक और कुचक्र चला, वह था रोमन लिपि को सरकारी दफ्तरों की लिपि बनाने का आंदोलन I सभा ने गवर्नर को पत्रक तो अर्पित कर दिया किन्तु उनके सचिव का उत्तर चालू राजनीतिक ढंग का था कि यथावसर इस प्रार्थनापत्र पर विचार किया जायगा I

निराशा के इस वातावरण के बीच भी सभा द्वारा नागरी की प्रतिष्ठा का प्रयत्न चलता रहा I २० अगस्त १८९६ ई० को 'बोर्ड ऑफ रेवेन्यू' ने सभा क्क यह आग्रह स्वीकार कर लिया की समन आदि हिन्दी में जारी किये जायँ I इस सफलता के फलस्वरूप सभा के कार्यकर्ताओं का उत्साह द्विगुणित हो गया I ऐसे ही समय इस कार्य में महामना का योग सभा को मिला I नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा की प्रबंधसमिति ने १३ अगस्त १८९६ ई० में यह निश्चय किया कि देवनागरी लिपि को राजकीय कार्यालयों में स्थान दिलाने के लिये सभा का एक प्रतिनिधिमंडल गवर्नर से मिले I उपसमिति के सदस्यों ने इस प्रसंग में प्रांतव्यापी दौरा किया और बाबू श्यामसुन्दरदास ने पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय से प्रयाग में संपर्क स्थापित किया I पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय ने इस क्षेत्र में आश्चर्यजनक क्षमता का परिचय दिया I

मालवीय जी ने दो साल के अथक परिश्रम के उपरांत अंग्रेजी में एक विस्तृत निबंध 'कोर्ट करेक्टर ऐंड प्राइमरी एजुकेशन' शीर्षक से लिखा I इस निबंध-लेखन में उन्होंने अत्याधिक श्रम किया, आँकडे एकत्र किए, छानबीन की I इस कार्य में उन्होंने सरकारी कार्यालयों की भी धुल फाँकी I हिन्दी और देवनागरी लिपि को समर्थन करनेवाला यह तथ्यपूर्ण तथा वैज्ञानिक निबंध सन १८९७ में इंडियन प्रेस से प्रकाशित हुआ I यद्धपि यह निबंध अंग्रेजी में था तो भी हिन्दी में लिख जाने की अपेक्षा यह अधिक लाभकारी प्रमाणित हुआ, क्योंकि जिन्हें सत्य का साक्षात्कार कराना था वे सब अँग्रेजी जाननेवाले हो लोग थे I इस निबंध में सहिष्णुतापूर्वक जो तर्क हिन्दी के पक्ष में मालवीय जी द्वारा उपस्थित किए गए उनका उत्तर दे सकना सहज नहीं I

नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा ने इस कार्य को आगे बढ़ाने के लिये १७ व्यक्तियों का एक व्यापक मंडल बनाया जिसमें सामान्यतः सभी वर्गों के लोग थे I हिंदीतर भाषाभाषी विशिष्ट जन भी इसमें संमिलित किए गए I इस मंडल में नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा के केवल एक प्रतिनिधि थे और वे थे मालवीय जी I प्रांत के गवर्नर सर एंटोनी मैक्डोनेल ने प्रतिनिधिमंडल से मिलने के लिये २ मार्च, १८९८ का दिन निश्चित किया I उस समय मालवीय जी ने साठ हजार हस्ताक्षरों से युक्त एक निवेदनपत्र भी अपनी पुस्तिका के साथ संलग्न का दिया I मालवीय जी ने जिस गंभीरता के साथ उस समय काम किया उससे हिन्दी की विजय की आशा दृष्टिगोचर होने लगी I इतने मात्र से ही मालवीय जी ने इस कार्य को यहीं छोड़ना उचित नहीं समझा I वे तो ऐसे मनीषियों में से थे जो अपने स्वप्नों को बिना मूर्त किए चैन लेनेवाले नहीं होते I उन्होंने बाबू श्यामसुन्दरदास को इस बात के लिए उत्प्रेरित किया कि वे प्रांत के विभिन्न बड़े नगरों का दौरा कर वहाँ के हिन्दीप्रेमियों को इस दिशा में आंदोलन करने के लिये संगठित करें I संयोग से मैक्डोनेल ने उन्हीं नगरों का दौरा किया जिनमें श्यामसुन्दरदास जी हिंदी आंदोलन के लिये समितियाँ बना चुके थे I मालवीय जी कि प्रेरणा से उनके संरक्षण में संचालित इस आंदोलन ने ऐसा प्रभाव दिखलाया कि हिंदी और देवनागरी लिपि को लेकर देश भर में एक आंदोलन खड़ा हो गया I देश भर की पत्र-पत्रिकाओं ने ने इसे अपनी मर्यादा का विषय बना लिया I अंततोगत्वा १८ अप्रैल १९३० में आंशिक रूप से यह प्रयास सफल हुआ I हिंदी और देवनागरी की इस प्रतिष्ठा का मुख्य श्रेय नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा को है, तो भी इसके अनन्य प्रेरणासूत्र के रूप में मालवीय जी महाराज की सेवाएं अविस्मरणीय रहेंगी I शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में भी उन्हीं की तपस्या से हिंदी को प्राथमिक विद्यालयों से लेकर विश्वविद्यालयों तक में स्थान मिला I

इसके पश्चात नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा के माध्यम से हिंदी के प्रचारक्षेत्र में जो कार्य उन्होंने किया वह भी इससे कम गौरवशाली नहीं रहा है I हिंदी को केवल प्रांत की भाषा बनाकर ही मालवीय जी को संतोष नहीं हुआ क्योंकि हिंदी को ही वे राष्ट्रभाषा के रूप में स्वीअक्र करनेवाले महान व्यक्ति थे I इस दिशा में प्रथम महत्वपूर्ण प्रयत्न नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा ने हिंदी-साहित्य-सम्मलेन की स्थापना के द्वारा किया I इसमें भी मालवीय जी का योग कम नहीं था I

१ मई सन १९१० ई० को नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा ने यह निश्चय किया कि काशी में हिंदी-साहित्य-सम्मलेन का आयोजन किया जाय I साथ ही यह निश्चय भी किया कि सम्मलेन में किन विषयों पर विचार हो और कौन सभापति चुना जाय I इसका निर्णय समाचारपत्रों में लेख छपवाकर हिन्दीप्रेमियों से कराया जाय I इस कार्य के लिये ११ व्यक्तियों की प्रबंधसमिति बनाई गई I पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय, पं० महावीरप्रसाद द्विवेदी और श्री गोविन्दनारायण मिश्र के नाम सभापतिपद के लिये आए और नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा की प्रबंधसमिति ने मालवीय जो को ही हिंदी-साहित्य-सम्मलेन के प्रथम सभापति के रूप में स्वीअक्र किया I सम्मलेन का प्रथम अधिवेशन १०,११ और १२ अक्टूबर १९१० को नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा में हुआ I सम्मलेन का आयोजन व्यापक मतभेद के अंतर्गत हुआ था I पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय ने इस अवसर पर सभापतिपद से सभा के पक्ष का प्रबल समर्थन किया और हिंदी के पक्ष में जो कुछ भी उन्होंने निवेदन किया वह अत्यंत विद्व्त्तापूर्ण तथा हिंदी के हित का परम साधक था I विभिन्न प्रांतों से ३०० प्रतिनिधि इसमें सम्मिलित हुए तथा ४२ संपादक विभिन्न प्रदेशों के इस अवसर पर पधारे थे I इस सम्मलेन में अदालतों में नागरी लिपि के प्रचार, यूनिवर्सिटी शिक्षा में हिंदी के प्रवेश, हिंदी पाठ्य-पुस्तकों के लेखन, राष्ट्रभाषा और राष्ट्रलिपि के रूप में नागरी के प्रयोग, स्टांपों और सिक्कों पर नागराक्षरों की प्रतिष्ठा आदि विषयों के संबंध में महत्वपूर्ण निश्चय हुए I इन निश्चयों का कार्यान्वयन ही हिंदी की प्रगति की कहानी का मूलाधार बना I सभापतिपद के लिये मालवीय जी का नाम प्रस्तावित करते समय महामहोपाध्याय पं० सुधाकर द्विवेदी ने उनके संबंध में जो कुछ कहा था वह पूर्णतः सत्य था; इस सम्मलेन का सभापतित्व किसी ऐसे पुरुष को देना चाहिए जिसमें चंचलता न हो, गंभीरता हो और जो बड़े-बड़े कामों पर विचार से विचार करे, मेरी समझ में जिस पुरुष को गवर्नमेंट ने प्रधान माना वाही माननीय पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय महाशय इस पद के लिये सर्वतोभाव से उपयुक्त पुरुष हैं I' पं० श्यामबिहारी मिश्र ने उस अवसर पर कहा था 'हिंदी की उन्नति जो आज दिखाई देती है उसमें मालवीय जी का उद्द्योग मुख्य कहना चाहिए I इस अवसर पर हमें दूसरा सभापति इनसे बढ़कर नहीं मिल सकता I'

इस सफल सम्मलेन की एक और विशेषता थी और वह विशेषता थी 'पैसा फंड' की व्यवस्था I नागरी अक्षरों तथा हिन्दीसाहित्य के अभ्युदय के लिये एक निधि की स्थपना के संबंध में सभापति महाशय ने अत्यंत मार्मिक अपील करते हुए पैसा फंड में सहायता देने के लिये लोगों को उत्साहित किया फिर तो सम्मलेन में पैसा बरसने लगा और तत्काल ३५२४-२-६ रूपए का चंदा एकत्र हो गया I साथ ही नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा पर जो ६०००) का ऋण हो गया था उसे भी चुका देने का आश्वासन मिला I मालवीया जी महाराज ने स्वंय ११००० पैसों की सहायता का वचन दिया I

इस प्रकार इस सम्मलेन द्वारा सभा का सभी प्रकार से लाभ हुआ I सन १९२८ में सम्मलेन का १८ वाँ अधिवेशन काशी नागरीप्रचारणी सभा में पुनः हुआ जिसके स्वागताध्यक्ष पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय बने I सभा के प्रांगण में आयोजित यह सम्मलेन भी अत्यंत सफल रहा I इतना सफल कि सभा के इतने भूतपूर्व सभापति किसी भी अधिेवशन में उपस्थित नहीं हुए थे I नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा के सुपुत्र सम्मलेन की सेवाओं से हिन्दीजगत परिचित है और मालवीय जी की इस पर भी जीवनपर्यन्त कृपा रही I

मालवीय जी सदा ही हिंदी के उस रूप के समर्थक रहे जो इसका प्राकृत रूप है I वे हिंदुस्तानी के कट्टर विरोधी थे I नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा ने इस संबंध में जब कभी कोई सहायता उनसे चाही उन्होंने अपनी अतिकार्यव्यस्तता के बीच भी इसके लिये अवकाश निकाला I

हिन्दीजगत का सर्वाधिक वर्तमान पुण्यतीर्थ सभाभवन है जिसे इस युग के समस्त हिन्दीप्रेमी श्रद्धावनत हो माँ भारती की तपस्या की अनंत प्रेरणभूमि के रूप में जानते, मानते और पूजते हैं I सबह की समस्त प्रवर्तियों का जिस भवन से संचालन, नियंत्रण तथा पल्लवन हुआ, महामना का उससे भी संबंध निजत्व का था I इसके निर्माण में भी उन्होंने महत्वपूर्ण योगदान दिया था I सन १८९८ ई० तक सभा का कार्य यत्रतत्र दान, मँगनी एंव किराए की कोठरियों में चलाया जाता था किन्तु कार्य के विस्तार ने सभा को अनुभव करा दिया कि बिना निजी भवन के अब उसका विस्तार नहीं है I सभा की आर्थिक स्थिति बहुत दयनीय थी I तो भी ९ जुलाई १८९८ ई० को सभा की प्रबंधसमिति ने भवन बनाने का निश्चय किया I उस समय वातावरण भी ऐसा नहीं था कि यह संकल्प सहज ही पूरा किया जा सकता क्योंकि केवल भवन ही नहीं बनवाना था अपितु साहित्य के भंडार की श्रीवृद्धि के लिये किए गए संकल्पों की पूर्ति भी करनी थी I पर संकल्प सभा का संबल था I भवन के साथ ही साथ सभा को ऐसे स्थायी कोष की आवश्यकता थी जिसकी आय से उसमें स्थिरता आती I फलतः ८ फरवरी १९०१ ई० को स्थायी कोष के लिये ट्रस्टियों का चुनाव सभा ने किया I जो द्रव्य सभाभवन के निर्माण के लिये संगृहीत था वाही स्थायी कोष की पूँजी बना I पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय जी भी ११ ट्रस्टियों में से एक थे I इस मंडल के जिम्मे मुख्य कार्य सभाभवन के निर्माण का था साथ ही इतने धन की व्यवस्था का भी था जिसके सूद से सभा अपने अन्य कार्य चला सके I इन निधि के नियम बनाने का कार्य भी इस समिति को ही सौंपा गया था I सभा के हित के लिये ऐसे ठोस और सुचारू नियम बनाए गए जिनसे सभा को शक्ति मिली I आय के संचय एंव व्यय के उचित प्रबंध के लिये जिस संरक्षकमंडल की स्थापना की गई मालवीय जी उसके भी अत्यंत प्रभावशाली सदस्य थे I २३ वर्ष तक सभा के आर्थिक प्रबंध का सारा कार्य यह संरक्षकमंडल करता रहा और मालवीय जी इसके सदस्य तथा समय समय पर पदाधिकारी भी थे I इस संरक्षकमंडल की देखरेख में भवननिर्माण का कार्य भी पूरा हुआ I इसमें मालवीय जी का योग कम महत्व का नहीं था I १९ फरवरी १९०४ ई० को संयुक्तप्रदेश के लेफ्टिनेंट गवर्नर ने काम चलाऊ रूप में निर्मित सभाभवन का उदघाटन किया I उन्हें उस समय अँग्रेजी में जो मानपत्र दिया गया उसको ना केवल मालवीय जी महारज ने देखकर सँवारा था अपितु गृहप्रवेशोत्सव समिति के सदस्य के रूप में उस समय उन्होंने सभा के हित में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका भी निभाई थी I अधूरा सभाभवन बनता गया, पर सभा के कार्यो में उत्तरोत्तर विस्तार होते रहने के कारण उसे बराबर स्थानाभाव का अनुभव होता रहा I इस विस्तार की पूर्ति के लिये रायकृष्ण जी ने सभाभवन के समीप की अपनी जमीन जिसका मूल्य लगभग १५०००) रूपए था, सभा को दान कर दिया I हिंदी के महान कोश 'हिंदी शब्दसागर' की समाप्ति के उत्सव में कोशोत्सव के अवसर पर नए भवन का शिलान्यास (१४ फरवरी १९२८ ई०) महामना ने किया I प्रस्तरमंजूषा में जो ताम्रपत्र रखा गया उसमें मालवीय जी के संबंध में जो कुछ निवेदन किया गया था, वह निम्नांकित है-

'आज माघ शुक्ल ५, गुरूवार, सं० १८९५ को इसके दूसरे नवीन भवन का शिलान्याससंस्करण देश के पूज्य नेता पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय द्वारा संपन्न हुआ I ईश्वर इस सभा की नित्य उन्नति करे, हिंदी भाषा तथा नागरी लिपि का स्वावलंबी भारवर्ष में अखंड राज्य हो और इसके द्वारा भारतवासी एकता के सूत्र में बँधकर राष्ट्र के निर्माण में सफल हों I'

इस अवसर पर जो शिलालेख लगाया गया वह इस प्रकार है-

'इस स्थल पर नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा काशी के नवीन भवन का शिलान्यास संस्कार माघ शुक्ल ५ सं० १८९५ वि० को महामना पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय जी के करकमलों से संपन्न हुआ I'

यद्दपि सभा इस संकल्प की पूर्ति आज तक न कर सकी तो भी मालवीय जी के हाथों रोप गए इस संकल्प की पूर्ति निकट भविष्य में निश्चय ही होगी इसमें संदेह नहीं I इस प्रकार आर्थिक क्षेत्र में भी मालवीय जी की सेवाएँ सभा को स्थायित्व प्रदान करनेवाली रही हैं I

नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा की कीर्ति का बहुत बड़ा कारण आर्यभाषा पुस्तकालय भी है I भारतवर्ष में हिंदी का यह अपने ढंग का अन्यतम पुस्तकालय है I इसकी सहायता के अभाव में विश्वविद्द्यालयों में होनेवाले अनुसंधानकार्य पुरे नहीं हो पाते I इसमें संगृहीत पुस्तकें तथा पत्र पत्रिकाएँ हिंदी की गौरव हैं I मिर्जापुर के श्री गदाधर सिंह का आर्यभाषा पुस्तकालय नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा को १६ जून १८९८ ई० को प्राप्त हो गया I इसका प्रवर्धित रूप आर्यभाषा पुस्तकालय है I श्री गदाधर सिंह का प्रवसान होने के उपरांत सभा अत्यंत झंझट में पड़ गई, यद्द्पि अपनी मृत्यु के पूर्व ही वे २५ जुलाई १८९८ को सभा के पक्ष में वसीयतनामा लिख गए थे I उस वसीयतनामे के द्वारा पुस्तकालय की यथोचित उन्नति और स्थायित्व के लिये वे अपनी समस्त संपत्ति सभा को अर्पित कर गए थे I इस वसीयतनामे के विरोध में कई विपक्षी खड़े हुए I फलतः सभा को मुक़दमा लड़ना पड़ा I यह मुकदमा बहुत लंबा चला और हाई कोर्ट तक भी गया I सन १९०४ को सभा हाई कोर्ट से मुकदमा जीत गई I इसका भी श्रेय पं० मदनमोहन मालवीय जी को है I जिस तत्परता-दक्षता के साथ उन्होंने सर सुन्दरलाल जी आदि की सहायता से सभा के पक्ष का समर्थन किया वह विरल ही है I

समय समय पर सभा की अन्य विशिष्ट प्रवृतियों में भी वे योग देते रहे I जिस समय नागरीप्रचारिणी सभा पं० महावीरप्रसाद द्विवेदी का अभिनंदन कर रही थी उस समय २ मई १९३३ ई० को सभा में अभिनन्दनोत्सव मनाया गया और ३ मई को इलाहाबाद में द्विवेदी मेले का आयोजन हुआ जिसका उदघाटन महामना ने ही किया I आज तक अभिनंदन का इतना सफल आयोजन किसी साहित्यकार का नहीं हो सका I

वृद्ध हो जाने पर भी मालवीय जी का आशीर्वाद निरंतर सभा पर था I उसकी प्रवर्तियों को प्रवर्धित देखने के लिये वे आशीर्वाद के साथ ही साथ पथप्रदर्शन करनेवाली मूल्यवान राय भी देते थे I इस बात से हिंदीजगत भली भाँती परिचित है कि हिंदी और हिंदुस्तानी के संघर्ष में जिस दृढ़ता के साथ और सम्मलेन के पक्ष का उन्होंने समर्थन किया था वह अत्यंत महत्वपूर्ण था I

सन १९४६ मने मालवीय जी के तिरोधान से सभा का एक वयोवृद्ध वास्तविक संरक्षक उठ गया I उस समय सभा ने जो शोकप्रकाश किया था वह इस प्रकार है-

'अत्यंत शोक का विषय है कि इस वर्ष हमारे बीच से कई वयोवृद्ध साहित्य-सेवी उठ गए I महामना मालवीय जी बहुत दिनों से रुग्ण हो गए थे, परन्तु जब कभी हिंदी भाषा और साहित्य तथा देवनागरी लिपि एंव भारतीय संस्कृति संबंधी कोई गंभीर समस्या उठ कड़ी होती थी, वे बराबर अपना परामर्श और आशीर्वाद देते रहे I हिंदी से उन्हें आरम्भ से ही कितना अनुराग था यह इसी से प्रकट होता है कि सभा के आरम्भ काल में आर्यभाषा पुस्तकालय के जन्मदाता श्री गदाधर सिंह जी की वसीयत वाले मुक़दमे में, सभा से उस समय कोई विशेष संपर्क वा संबंध ना होते हुए भी, मालवीय जी ने बिना कुछ पारिश्रमिक लिए बड़ी लगन से पैरवी की थी I इसके उपरांत तो सभी कार्यों में उनका प्रमुख योग प्राप्त होता रहा I संयुक्प्रांत की कचहरियों में नागरी का प्रवेश करने के लिए उन्होंने ६० हजार व्यक्तियों के हस्ताक्षर से सरकार के पास स्मृतिपत्र भेजा था एंव 'कोर्ट कैरेक्टर ऐंड प्राइमरी एजुकेशन' नामक महत्वपूर्ण अँग्रेजी पुस्तक तैयार करके सभा द्वारा प्रकाशित कराई थी I हिंदी-साहित्य-संमेलन की योजना बनाने का श्रेय उन्हीं को है I काशी में संमेलन का जो पहला अधिेवशन हुआ था उसके सभापति भी वे ही थे I ऐसे कर्मयोगी को खोकर कौन जाति दुखी ना होगी I'

जिस व्यक्ति का सभा के प्रत्येक कार्य में घनिष्ठ योगदान रहा हो, जिसने हर स्थिति में उसे नैतिक समर्थन प्रदान किया हो तथा जो इसका प्रेरणास्त्रोत रहा हो उसके प्रवासन पर सभा ने जो शोक अनुभव किया वह स्वाभाविक था I आज सभा महामना के कर्तव्य से प्रेरणा लेती हुई विकास के अनेक नए प्रतिमान स्थापित कर अपने पथ पर आगे बढ़ती चली जा रही है I

Bharati Bhawan Library

The Bharati Bhavan Library was established in November 1889 in the locality where Malaviya resided. It was a by-product of the session of the Indian National Congress in the sense that many young men who had worked as volunteers during the session became inspired with patriotic zeal. There was already a strong feeling that the culture of the land was in grave danger from the insidious impact of the west. Education was being imparted through the medium of English, the subjects taught were mostly western and the Indian languages had no places in the courses of study at the higher stages. Government’s policy of encouraging the minority community to check the tide of rising nationalism, threatened to submerge the culture of the majority. The battle cry of Bhartendu Harish Chandra that advancement of the mother tongue was a necessary condition of all progress had caught the imagination of the younger generation.

Balkrishna Bhatt who represented the school of Bhartendu in Allahabad resided not far from Malaviya. He was an enthusiast for Hindi and gathered round him a band of young men of whom Malaviya was one and inspired them with the missionary zeal for promoting the mother tongue. They felt bitterly the backwardness of Hindi and longed for the day when it would find a respectable place on the shelves of the libraries. The only public library in Allahabad at the time Thornhill-Mayne Memorial Library established in 1864 by the efforts of the two British officers (whose name it bears) and for which the present beautiful and the imposing building was created in 1878. Situated far away from the centre of population in the city, and stocked almost exclusively with books in European languages, it was of little use as an instrument of public enlightenment. It was felt that the masses could not be awakened except through the medium of the local languages and, therefore, a library of Hindi books and of Sanskrit books in which the culture of the land is enshrined, should be established. Credit for the ideas goes to Balkrishna Bhatt and to Lala Lal Behari, a raise of Satna who graduated at Allahabad and resided. He was related to Brij Mohan Lal Bhalla, a wealthy banker living in the vicinity of Malaviya’s house, who had no children and was philanthropically minded.

Brij Mohan Lal Bhalla was himself a great lover of Hindi and had made a large collection of Hindi books. These he gave away to form a library for which he also provided accommodation in his own premises. He met all the expenses of the library in the initial years. He creates a Trust with a sum of Rs. 47,200 out of which Rs. 10,000 was earmarked for the construction of a building for it. He did not live to see the building created; having contracted a fatal disease on a pilgrimage to Badri Nath in 1901, he died on May 15, 1902. He had satisfaction, however, of hearing just before he breathed his last that the foundation stone of the building had been laid. Lala Ram Charan Das another wealthy philanthropist had undertaken at his instance to put up a building for the library which he did at a cost of exceeding Rs. 22,000/- himself meeting the amount spent in excess of the sum of Rs. 10,000/- provided in the Trust. The building was formally opened on the 12th May 1913 at a function presided over by Dr. Sir Sundar Lal. Speaking on the occasion Malaviya dwelt on the importance of propagating knowledge (Vidyadan), citing the Hindu Shastras in support of his views.

Malaviya identified himself closely with the library. He had not taken a conspicuous part in establishing the library as he was away in Kalakankar editing the Hindustan till about a month before its foundation, but he was an enthusiastic supporter of the movement which it represented. His cousin Jai Govind Malaviya who was the principal teacher of Sanskrit at the Government High School Allahabad, had given it his priceless collection of Sanskrit manuscripts which together with the Hindi collection donated by Brij Mohan Lal Bhalla constituted the initial stock of the library. He was a member of the first Managing Committee which drew up its constitution and defined its aims and objects at its meeting on 26th November 1889. These were conceived in a liberal spirit and reflect the vision of the promoters. The books in the library were to be available to anyone who asked for them. The Library was to acquire books in Hindi and Sanskrit. It would accept books in other languages as gifts but not purchase them at a price. It would subscribe for at least ten journals-dailies, weeklies and monthlies. It was also to encourage writers of good books. A further object, later added at the time of registration of the Trust (but never implemented) was to collect manuscripts of Sanskrit and Hindi books and to edit and publish them within the limits of available funds. The Library received the constant care of its promoters, Lal Behari, Balkrishna Bhatt and Jai Govind Malaviya who met daily on the upper story of the house of Brij Mohan Lal Bhalla. Malaviya joined them frequently.

When a Trust was created for the Library, Malaviya was named a Trustee and continued to be member as well as president of the Trust till the end of his life. How dear the institution was to him may be judged from the fact that he adopted its name as his address, dating his letters, as from “Bharati Bhavan, Allahabad” and thereby changing the name of the locality from Kucha Sanval Das to ‘Bharati Bhavan. Whenever he had occasion to speak about the library he referred to it in terms of high appreciation.

At the fifth annual function of the Bharati Bhavan Library (December 1894) which was presided order by T.C.Lewis, the Provincial Director of Public Instruction, Malaviya made a speech in which he dilated on the importance of libraries of Sanskrit and Hindi books

Hindi Sahitya Sammelan

Hindi Sahitya Sammelan

‘The Leader’

Due to efforts of Malaviyaji ‘TheLeader’ was founded as an English daily on Vijaya Dashmi October 24, 1909 with Motilal Nehru as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the company and Malaviya himself as editor assisted by Nagendranath Gupta and C.Y. Chintamani. The Leader was the second Indian daily to subscribe to Reuter’s service of foreign news. It soon made its mark as the best equipped newspaper in upper India while its expression of public opinion was acknowledged to be characterized by fairness and moderation. The Leader continued to prosper and by 1929 it came to have spacious modern buildings of its own erected in 1927 at Allahabad at a cost of Rupees two lacs. A rotary press was installed which was capable of printing 30,000 copies of the paper per hour.

सेवा समिति

मालवीय जी की प्रेरणा से १९१२ में अर्धकुम्भ के शुभ अवसर पर विद्यार्थियों ने "दीनरक्षक" समिति का गठन किया I मालवीय जी के बड़े पुत्र पण्डित रमाकान्त मालवीय उसके प्रमुख थे I इस संस्था का उददेश्य कुम्भ मेलें में आने वाले श्रद्धालुओं की सेवा करना था I यही संस्था सन १९१५ में "प्रयाग सेवा समिति" बन गई I मालवीय जी इसके अध्यक्ष तथा पंडित हृदयनाथ कुंजरू इसके मंत्री बने I इस समिति ने सन १९१८ ई० में कुम्भ के अवसर पर उल्लेखनीय कार्य किया I प्रयाग सेवा समिति को अखिल भारतीय स्वरुप देने के लिए उसका नामकरण अखिल भारतीय सेवा समिति कर दिया गया I


Malaviyaji established Mac Donnel Hindu Boarding House (Now Known as Hindu Hostel) at Allahabad in 1903, to house about 230 students. His ideas was to bring together outstations students from otherwise sordid surroundings and provide them moral values and cultural association with fellow students. Malaviyaji collected Rs 1.5 lakh for this venture.

Ganga Mahasabha

Apprehensive of the possibility of the British completely damming the flow of Ganga at Bhimgauda in Haridwar. Mahamana Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviyaji set up the Ganga Mahasabha in 1905. Due to Mahamana’s effort a massive public protest arose against the damming of Mother Ganga and the British Government had to buckle under the pressure. In 1916 an agreement was entered into with the British Government which provided;

1) In future, the incessant flow of Ganga will never be interfered with. (1916 Agreement, clause 32, Para-1)

2) No decision on Ganga will be taken without the consent of Hindu community. (1916 Agreement, clause 32, Para-1)

Under Mahamana’s leadership Indian Prince and lala Sukhbir Singh then General Secretary of Hindu Mahasabha signed this agreement which is binding even today under the article 363 of the Indian Constitution.

In 2005 the Ganga Mahasabha was restructured and has been playing the leading role in mass movements, public awareness campaigns and coordinating various other efforts to protect Mother Ganga.

Source : Ganga Mahasabha

Shree Lakshmi Narain Mandir, Durgiana Mandir

Shree Durgiana Mandir in Amritsar is a focal point of faith for the Hindus. Pilgrims flock to this temple not only from India but also from abroad. Over the years, it has become an epicenter of Hindu renaissance and rejuvenation. The complex is popularly known as the Durgiana derives its name from the Goddess Durga. Shree Laxmi Narain Mandir is the main Mandir. The concept of building this beautiful temple on the pious soil of Amritsar City was conceived in 1920. Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya,the great Hindu philospher,reformist and Karamyogi was instrumental in collecting funds for this noble cause. Sh.Guru Har Sahai Mal Kapoor and Sh.Nathu Mal Rang Wale, both made tremendous efforts for raising funds and for planning. Ultimately on 7th October 1925, Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya laid the foundation of this temple on Dussera Day.